丹麦饮食 丹麦三明治(Smoerrebroed)是具有代表性的丹麦食物，这是一种开口三明治，从最简单的到复杂得像雕塑品的都有。 举世闻名的“丹麦酥”(Danish)，在丹麦叫做Wien
France has a long culinary tradition. French cuisine nowadays is a result of centuries of research, elaboration and perfection. The French are proud of their cuisine. It is an integral part of their culture. Thanks to the interest in the French for good food, the chefs have always been encouraged to elaborate new dishes to satisfy the most discriminating palate. The origins of the success of French cuisine can be attributed to Catherine de Medicis. When she became Queen of France in 1533, she brought her own Florentine chefs from Italy. At this time, Italian chefs were more experienced than French chefs. They introduced new dishes and sophisticated techniques that they adapted to French products. This gave French cooking a real boost, and the country's culinary influence has never stopped. French cuisine is sophisticated, varied, well balanced and based on local and high-quality products. France has established some regulations to protect product names from fraud, and guarantee the origin and product quality to the customer. To carry the prestigious label ＂Appélation d'Origine Contrôlée＂ (A.O.C), products must comply with strict rules related to geography, varieties, method of fabrication and other criteria. Unlike other countries, France does not have one national dish. Because each region has its own local products and specialties, it is more appropriate to name regional dishes than a single one. Here is a tour de France of the regional specialties: Alsace Alsace cuisine is strong and unique. It plays a major part on holidays and at family gatherings. Alsatian cuisine is rich and copious. Most Alsatian dishes are not found in other parts of France. The most famous specialty is Chouchroute, sauerkraut garnished with potatoes and a variety of meats such as sausage, pork or ham. The Baeckaoffe is a one-of-a-kind Alsatian fare baked with white wine usually in a traditional pottery dish only made in the village of Soufflenheim. It's a stew comprised of pork, beef and lamb garnished with potatoes. There are many Alsatian cakes and desserts, but the best is the Kougelhopf, brioche pastry with butter, eggs, raisins, whole almonds marinated in kirsch. At Christmas, bredles and gingerbreads decorate the tables of all Alsatian families. Bredles are cookies of different shapes flavoured with anise, cinnamon or almond. Brittany Brittany has excellent fresh seafood: Coquilles-St-Jacques (sea scallops), lobsters, langoustes, crabs, clams, shrimps, mussels, and oysters will all be found on the market stalls of Brittany. This region is also famous for traditional crêperies serving wheat crêpes and buckwheat galettes accompanied with cider. La Chandeleur, celebrated February 2nd, is the crêpes day in France. Eating crêpes the day of la Chandeleur will bring a year of happiness! Burgundy A trip to France would not be complete without sampling escargots and frog's legs. Burgundy snails are with the petis-gris snails, the two varieties eaten in France. Escargots à la Bourgignonne are stuffed with garlic butter. Frog's legs are sautéed in butter with fine herbs. The Boeuf Bouguignon is another typical Burgundy specialty. It's a beef stew marinated with Burgundy red wine. The best-known regional product is Mustard de Dijon, secretly produced in the town of Dijon. This strong mustard is used in vinaigrette, sauces and nicely compliments red meat. Normandy Normandy is renowned for the quality of its dairy products and apples. The region is home to the world-known Camembert cheese. Originally made more than 200 years ago in the lovely village of Camembert, genuine Camembert cheese is exclusively produced in Normandy. Apples also play an important part in the Norman cuisine. They are not only used in desserts, but in alcohol and liquors. The region is famous for cider and a strong apple brandy called Calvados. A mixture of Cider and Calvados, the Pommeau de Normandie is another regional beverage. In Normandy, it is tradition to drink a glass of Calvados in the middle of a meal to help digestion. This 200 century-old ritual is called Trou Normand. Nowadays, a Trou Normand is still served in the middle of a meal, but as an apple sorbet soaked with Calvados. Provence The warm and sunny weather of Provence produces high-quality fruits and vegetables whose delicious scents can be spotted in the open markets of Southern France. The basic ingredients of Provençal cuisine are olive oil, garlic and herbes de Provence. Among the typical provençal dishes, Ratatouille is a vegetable stew made out of tomatoes, peppers, zucchinis, onions and olive oil and Salade Niçoise, ...
Denmark - Introduction Introduction Denmark lies between 54?and 58?of latitude north and 8?and 15?of longitude east. In addition to Denmark itself, the kingdom also includes the Faeroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark consists of the peninsula of Jutland and c. 406 islands, of which c. 79 are inhabited (2002). Of these, the largest and most densely populated are Zealand on which the capital of Copenhagen is situated, Funen and the north Jutland island. The North Sea defines Denmark to the west, while the islands divide the Baltic from the Kattegat. The Danish islands are thus on the sea lane from the Baltic to the main oceans of the world and at the same time on the trade route from the Nordic countries to central Europe. Throughout the entire history of the country, this position has been influential on the circumstances governing developments in trade and on political and military strategy. Administratively, the country is divided into 14 counties (amter) and 275 local authorities (kommuner), two of which (Copenhagen and Frederiksberg) are not included in the counties. Towards the end of the 10th century, Denmark was united into a single kingdom. It has been an independent country ever since, and is thus one of the oldest states in Europe. The form of government is a parliamentary democracy with a royal head of state. The system of production is capitalist (economic liberalism) with private ownership of businesses and production. The state and other public authorities, however, exercise a considerable regulatory control and provide comprehensive services for the citizens. Denmark is a developed industrialised country. By international standards, the standard of living is high, and the differences between rich and poor are smaller than in many of the countries with which Denmark is traditionally compared. Denmark is a member of the European Union. The proximity of Germany has traditionally orientated the country south in an economic and political sense, but close co-operation with Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland, with which Denmark enjoys a passport union, also ties Denmark to the North. The country has a coastline totalling c. 7,300 km in all and a 68-km-long frontier with Germany. It is a distinctly low-lying country, the highest point being only 173 metres above sea level, but the landscape is undulating and varied; only occasionally is it possible to find undisturbed nature, and the view everywhere shows signs of human activity. Only on the island of Bornholm do we find bedrock, and otherwise the land is characterised by fertile clayish or sandy moraine landscapes. Denmark is poor in mineral deposits. However, chalk for the production of cement is found in considerable quantities, and more oil and gas is extracted from the North Sea than is needed for home consumption. Most of the country, c. 65%, is under cultivation. 10% is covered by deciduous or coniferous forest, while meadow, heath, marshland, bogs, sandhills and lakes constitute c. 10%. Built-up areas and traffic areas make up the remaining c. 13%. The climate is temperate, and precipitation is sufficient to provide all the water needed. The population stands at c. 5.37 million, and the population density is c. 125 per square kilometre. Foreign immigrants and their descendants amount to c. 395,000, 165,000 of whom come from Europe; in addition there is a small German minority in southern Jutland. The language is everywhere Danish, and the vast majority of the population has been baptised into the established protestant church. Denmark is therefore nationally and culturally very homogeneous. 85% of the population lives in towns. The greater Copenhagen region accounts for c. 1.08 million inhabitants. The second city is Århus (218,000 inhabitants). In addition the entire country is otherwise covered by a network of medium-sized towns. Danish agriculture is highly developed, producing a considerable surplus of manufactured foods which are exported to other countries. Industrial production is very varied in relation to the size of the country. Among the commodities that have made Denmark known abroad are, in addition to agricultural produce, beer, medicines, furniture, shipping, wind turbines and products of the advanced metal industries. Both agriculture and industry are highly effective. Agriculture and fisheries employ only 4%, and industry and construction 23% of the population. The remaining 73% are employed in the service sector, 35% in public and personal services and 38% in private business, including financial activities and the traditional shipping trade. Denmark is well provided ...
French Food Culture Culture of French Food French cuisine is extremely diverse, with only the Chinese having similar variety in their food. This variety is supported by the French passion for good food in all its forms, France's extraordinary range of different geographies and climates which support the local production of all types of ingredients, and France's long and varied history. In many ways, an understanding of the culture of French food is an understanding of France itself.Meals range from the very basic, such as the traditional baguette plus cheese plus inexpensive wine, to very elaborate affairs than can involve a dozen courses and different wines consumed over several hours. Obviously, the latter type of dining is exceptional for most people. However, it is this more sophisticated dining which is typically found in ＂French restaurants＂ outside France, giving many foreigners the mistaken impression that French food is heavy and complicated. In fact, much of the French cuisine is fairly simple, relying on high quality fresh ingredients and loving preparation rather than complex recipes.It is common in much of France to take a two hour break for lunch, with many working parents (particularly in villages and smaller towns) returning home for lunch. In some areas, mainly in the south of France, even longer lunch breaks are taken. Due to the long lunch break, businesses which close for this period typically reopen around 2PM or so and then stay open until about 7PM.Regional influences on French food Almost all the famous French dishes are regional specialities, some of which have become popular throughout France (such as Coq au Vin and Foie Gras) while others are mainly enjoyed in the regions in which they originate. Although regional specialities are often offered throughout France, the quality of ingredients and preparation is often superior in their region of origin. Each region, in addition to boasting local specialities, also has a general style of cooking and choice of ingredients. For example, in Provence the food typically features olive oil, herbs and tomatoes. The evolution of regional cooking styles has been influenced by:Local availability. The French, a nation of gourmets, know that the best food is made from local ingredients, which are fresher and of better quality than items which have been transported long distances. Consequently, coastal regions (such as Brittany and Normandy, on the northwest coast of France) will favour sea fish and will use it more often and in more varied ways than inland areas. Likewise, areas where fruit or herbs grow easily, will incorporate these into their local cuisine. Neighbouring countries and immigration. Areas of France which border on other countries have incorporated some of the cuisine of their neighbours. It is not surprising to find Italian dishes near the Italian border. More notably, the French region of Alsace is similar to Germany in its food (sauerkraut is popular) and wine, partly due to it currently bordering on Germany and partly due to it having been part of Germany at various points in its history (the border has moved back and forth with various wars). In parts of the south which have a large North African immigrant population one can enjoy the cuisine which they have imported from their original countries. History and economic conditions. The culture, lifestyle and economic conditions over a long period of time have formed the development of local food traditions. The rich meat dishes and cream sauces of Burgundy are not only due to Burgundian excellence in raising cattle, but in large part to the economic prosperity of this region over several centuries. On the other hand, mountain regions excel in firm cheeses, which allow food to be preserved over the long and difficult winters, and can be produced from mountain livestock which historically were the main means of support for many families in economically limited areas. In all parts of France one will find a range of dishes, both in restaurants and in homes, which extends far beyond the regional specialities. However, in much of France the regional influences in terms of ingredients and cooking are marked. The most available food and the best cooking tend to be those produced from local ingredients and using local recipes. Therefore, the decision of where to visit or live in France tends to influence which types of food one will enjoy.The French Mediterranean uses olive oil, herbs and tomatoes in many of its dishes. The cuisine of northwest France uses butter, soured cream (crème fraiche) and apples. The cuisine of northeast France (Alsace, and to a lesser extent ...
第一篇：Acquired romantic Italian supremacy of the quality of life, they have fashionable clothing, superb arts and Intelligent football taste buds have brought unlimited aftertaste of Italy Italian restaurants features : In his Hong rotten to carry famous for cooking, frying, fried, deep-fried, Jiangmen method known, and we are pleased with spaghetti rice cooking, but not as the main food. Italian food habits are mature in the 1967 general cooking, which is that other countries can not. Taste Hobbies : Kaoyangtui-eat, steak, etc. Beauty and the food tastes. Various noodles, fried rice, wonton, dumplings, noodles pimple also love to eat. Italian cuisine as its culture : noble, elegant, unique flavor. Attractive and delicious pasta, cheese, ham and wine all over the world aspire to the gourmet paradise. Traditional Italian meals generally have four to five dishes : the first disk : Italian Antipasto said. ＂Before meals＂ meant. Wenhui restaurant administrative meticulously prepared by Chef de Cuisine of fresh beef slices and Italian salad and Italian cheese salad will get your big appetite Zhen, frequently. The first dish is mainly soup (Zuppe), Spaghetti or Pilav (Risotto). Italian Primo is Pratto. As there was still the main courses, there will be less weight. Wenhui the Beijing-Guangzhou restaurant, you can choose the Italian vegetable soup, crab meat or corn soup pasta, chicken Secretary - Vol. beef noodle films, Italian-style pasta and seafood Angel. Italian pasta well received globally, so you be sure not to miss the Road delicious pasta. Dierdaocai Worse : the soul of the whole meals, seafood or meat dishes. Many hunk dishes are fried or barbecue cooking methods, access points at his table salt or olive oil will be consumed. Western is very keen on desserts, and Italian dessert extremely well. Italy text dessert Dlolce itself was ＂sweet＂ means. Often the only click access to the main dish. Former French President General de Gaulle had a famous saying : ＂this country too many types of cheese. ungovernable. ＂Italy＂ even worse ＂because of its many types of cheese, yield abundant, high quality, France have made unparalleled. Only the strong Italian coffee, aromatic into ice cream, really good Huizi, good taste and good enjoyment. Italian cuisine : more Shinijia and 27,560,670 for the two local representatives and product Shinijia more beef, edit and Parkinson high even slavery cheese. Southern Italy styles of cooking : specialty products including hazelnut, Japan dry tomatoes, Mosa Lane with cheese, oil and fortune-Henry bacteria. Pasta main material is hard wheat flour, salt and water, including macaroni, Italy powder and powder wheel, also like to use olive oil cooking food, skillful use of vanilla, spices and seafood dishes. 第二篇：What is the Italian dish? ＂In Italy there is no Italian vegetables, Some only authentic Taiwanese cuisine. ＂Year 1861 for the former Italian soil by the aristocratic royal era Local awareness throughout high, but this time the food is the local Taiwanese cuisine. Today, the tender spring asparagus petitioners del Grappa fall plump spinach, and Italy is the most mouthwatering cuisine. Italian dishes are ＂mother's touch,＂ and ＂Mom is the flavor of the world's best cuisine.＂ Italy most of the mothers, Sunday will be hand-rolling surface of the Italian Fettuccine Sugo and seasoning sauce, and left to enjoy the winter. Italian cuisine has a ＂mother's touch,＂ because they own backyard planting vegetables, raising chickens, capture prey, with a mother's love, cooking food from the earth.
Foods of the World1.Chinese FoodChinese food varies by region. In northern China, Mongolian influences are evident especially in the use of the fire pot. Rice is not grown in the north, so noodles, soybeans and breads are used more often. In the mountainous regions to the west, spicy foods are more prevalent. These forms are Szechuan and Hunan. In the south, Cantonese styles prevail. Fresh fruit and seafood are popular. Steamed rice is an important part of Chinese food.The Chinese believe that food can affect one's health. Eating the proper food can help prevent disease as well as heal. In Cantonese cooking, it is important that yin and yang foods and cooking methods are used in balance. By taking into consideration factors such as the individual's age, digestive system, absorbing power, and metabolism, optimal health is achieved. Foods also symbolize different things. For example, clams represent wealth and prosperity.2..German FoodSchmierkuchenSchmierkuchen is a German-Bohemian cottage cheese cake. Using sugar, flour, shortening, and yeast, a pie crust is created and allowed to rise. The dough is then rolled flat and placed inside a pie plate, again being left to rise. When the crust is double in size, a mixture of cottage cheese and butter is placed in the crust and a garnish of fruit is smeared on top. Most often the fruit of choice is prunes that have been pitted, mashed, and sweetened to taste. The cheesecake is then baked until it is golden brown and served with many summer meals.SauerkrautA dish known as ＂sour cabbage＂ probably does not sound appetizing, but many Germans and German-Americans find it rather enjoyable. To make sauerkraut, one thinly shreds cabbage which is then mixed with salt and placed into a large container (barrels were used originally). The container is covered with cheesecloth or muslin, then with a heavy lid to ensure that the cabbage is not exposed to the air. The cabbage should be left to ferment in its own juices for 3 to 6 weeks, although brine may need to be added if it is starting to dry out. After it has fermented for several weeks, the sauerkraut is then ready to be eaten. It is simmered on the stove and is often prepared with sausage or pork and accompanied by dumplings. 3..Indian FoodSpices are an important part of cooking in India. Common spices are turmeric, cardamon, ginger, coriander, nutmeg and poppy seed, which are blended together. Vegetable dishes are more common in India than in Europe. Part of the reason for this is the influence of Hinduism. Hindus are traditionally vegetarian. Muslims have influenced the meat dishes of India. Typical meats are ＂Mughlai food, kabobs, rich Kormas (curries) and nargisi koftas (meat-balls), the biryani (a layered rice and meat preparation), rogan josh, and preparations from the clay oven or tandoor like tandoori rotis and andoori chicken＂ 2Differences exist between the south and north parts of India. Vegetable dishes are more common in the south, and rice is the staple food. In the north, rice is often substituted by breads.4..Japanese FoodJapanese food emphasizes pure, clean flavors, and spices are used rarely. Due to influences from Buddhism, meals are made up of foods with five different colors and flavors. The five flavors included are sweet, spicy, salty, bitter and sour. The five colors included are yellow, black, white, green, and red. Meals are also meant to balance and create harmony between the artistic presentation of the food, the selection of the serving piece, and the taste of the food itself. Meals are to be eaten slowly. Noodles in soups and salads are common for lunch. Hashi, or chopsticks are used to eat food in Japan.Some traditional Japanese foods are, sushi, steamed vegetables, rice and green tea. Fugu is a poisonous puffer fish that is a delicacy. When properly prepared, the toxins in fugu create a tingling effect after being eaten. Foods are also prepared seasonally. In winter, mandarin oranges are common. Cherry-blossom rice is prepared during spring and in September, abalone, cucumbers, and bamboo shoots are made.5.Italian FoodTypical foods vary by region in Italy. There are geographical and climatic differences throughout Italy that result in different products being available to cook with. Italy has mountainous regions and plains. Temperature also varies greatly, some regions are among the coldest in Italy while others have mild climates along the Mediterranean. Pasta is typical in both areas, but the way the pasta is prepared varies. In the north, eggs are used when making the pasta, while in the south they are not. Also, ...
1 South Korea's kimchi practice :The world-renowned Korean kimchi, Korea has become basically the signs.韩国泡菜的韩国语读音：“听其” South Korea's kimchi Korean pronunciation: ＂listen to his＂配料：大白菜、蒜、盐、鱼露、辣椒粉、糖。
Ingredients: Chinese cabbage, garlic, salt, fish sauce, chili powder, sugar.注意：鱼露是最必不可少的东西，也是为什么中国的酸辣泡菜和韩国泡菜最不同的地方，在韩国几乎家家自己做鱼露，中国人不吃这个东西，不过在大的超市里面有卖的，大约8-10元一瓶，多半是泰国的鱼露。
Note: The sauce is the most essential thing is the reason why the Chinese hot and sour kimchi and Korean kimchi to the greatest difference, almost every family in South Korea to do their own fish sauce, Chinese people do not eat this thing, but in the big supermarkets inside There are sales of about 8-10 yuan a bottle, most of the fish sauce in Thailand.准备材料： To prepare materials:1.白菜 1. Cabbage白菜绿叶多，表皮薄，叶子密实，没有过多需要去除的外层叶子，看起来既干净又新鲜的为上选。
Chinese cabbage leaves, thin sheet, leaf density, there is no need to remove too much of the outer leaves, it looks clean and fresh for the last election. 储藏白菜以有绿叶，看起来新鲜的白菜为宜，新产的白菜越大越好，秋季白菜以大小适中，结球程度好，重量重的为好。
Storage Empoasca have to cabbage, Chinese cabbage fresh look is appropriate, the new production of the better Chinese cabbage, Chinese cabbage in the fall to size, the degree of cabbage, heavy weight for good. 白菜不仅含有丰富的维生素或矿物质，还含有各种具有多种药理作用的成分。
Chinese cabbage is not only rich in vitamins or minerals, but also contain a variety of pharmacological effects with a variety of ingredients. 据学术论文发表，白菜中含有的methyLmethionine是蛋氨酸的生物活性物质，对动脉硬化症具有疗效，而methyLsysteinsuLfoxid具有强化胆固醇的效果。
According to published academic papers, cabbage contains methyLmethionine the Met is the biological active substance, with effects on atherosclerosis, and methyLsysteinsuLfoxid have to strengthen the effectiveness of cholesterol.2. 萝卜 2. Radish萝卜主要由水分组成，含有丰富的维生素C和消化酶—淀粉糖化酶素，若生吃，则有助于消化。
Radish by water, rich in vitamin C and digestive enzymes - starch-glucoamylase, if raw, it helps digestion. 与萝卜心相比，维生素C主要分布在萝卜皮上，因此最好不要削皮，洗净后食用。
With the heart radish, vitamin C mainly in the Luobu Pi, so best not to peel, wash after eating. 萝卜以粗大而均匀、无疤痕、新鲜、色泽光润、肉质结实柔软、不太辣、有甜味的为上选。
The big carrot in uniform, no scars, fresh color Guangrun, succulent fruit is soft, not too spicy, sweet as the last election.3.辣椒 3. Pepper辣椒除胡萝卜素和维生素C之外，还含有多种成分。
In addition to the chili carotene and vitamin C, also contains a variety of ingredients. 辣椒素具有杀菌及除菌作用，能够促进唾液或胃液的分泌，促进消化。
Capsaicin has a role in sterilization and disinfection, saliva or be able to promote the secretion of gastric juice, and promote digestion. 此外，还具有提高体内各种代谢作用。
In addition, it has to raise all kinds of body metabolism. 腌制泡菜时使用的辣椒面宜选用在阳光底下晒干的色泽鲜红、肉质厚、表皮光润的尖椒。
Kimchi pickled pepper powder used in the selection should be dried in the sun under the bright red color, thick flesh, skin Guangrun Pepper's.4.大蒜 4. Garlic大蒜的源产地是中亚地区，是属于百合科的葱类，蒜头在地下。
Garlic is the source of origin in Central Asia, belongs to the Liliaceae onion category, and garlic in the ground. 蒜头被淡褐色的蒜皮包围，内部有5~6个小蒜瓣。
The garlic was light brown skin surrounded by garlic, there are 5 to 6 small Suanban. 普通农家栽培的代表性的土产品种是作为晚熟品种的六瓣蒜和多瓣蒜，以及长茎蒜。
The General cultivation of farm products represented as a late-maturing varieties are 6 species of garlic and garlic Duoban, as well as the long stems and garlic. 制作泡菜时多使用味道辛辣的多瓣蒜，而制作咸蒜或使用蒜叶时多使用长茎蒜。
Making more use of kimchi, when Duo Ban spicy garlic flavor, and the production of garlic salt or garlic when the leaves to make more use of long-stem garlic. 蒜中的主要刺激成分— 丙亚硫酸盐的杀菌力为碳酸的15倍，具有促进新陈代谢，镇痛、便秘、解毒等各种作用。
Garlic in the main components of stimulus - C sulfite sterilization of the force carbonate for 15 times, with the promotion of metabolism, pain, constipation, such as the role of detoxification.5.葱 5. Onions普通蔬菜是碱性，但葱含有丰富的硫磺，属于酸性食品。
For nearly 100 years, the heartbroken Little Mermaid has sat on a rock looking out over Copenhagen's port but now the sculpture based on the famous fairytale, is heading back out to sea, set for China.The small bronze statue inspired by the tale of author Hans Christian Andersen and unveiled in 1913, is a major tourist attraction in Copenhagen. But her life has not always been easy.She has been beheaded twice, had her arm cut off, was blown off her rock in 2003 and was dressed in a Muslim headscarf two years ago in a protest - but she never left her native country.This week she was lifted from the harbor, boxed, and shipped to Shanghai where she is the star guest in the Danish Pavilion at EXPO 2010 which runs until October 31. Details over her trip were not revealed due to security issues.＂The Little Mermaid,＂ published in 1837, is a sad story about a mermaid who falls in love with a prince and gives up her life in the sea and her tail for legs.The fairytale has been adapted many times into stage shows and into a Disney movie.Copenhagen mayor Frank Jensen said in a statement that the loan of The Little Mermaid was part of a cultural exchange between Denmark and China.＂I am convinced that she will be an excellent ambassador of Denmark, particularly since the Chinese already are very fond of Hans Christian Andersen and his fairytales,＂ he said in a statement.Her departure from Copenhagen will not leave the harbor empty. Chinese artist Ai Weiwei has created a video installation to be installed at her spot.The Little Mermaid's 165 cm (65 inches) tall sculpture, which sits on a granite block, was created in 1913 by Edvard Eriksen.望楼主采纳！！！（/ﾟДﾟ）/
MANY I ask what you thought of first when you saw the title of this piece? Was it rotten meat and inedible sausage, with people standing in endless lines to obtain these delicacies? Or was it mounds of caviar and free-flowing vodka, with exuberant guests flinging their glasses into the fireplace? During those tumultuous days in August, once it was clear that Boris Yeltsin had faced down the coup, the thought occurred that along with a revival of freedom, Russians and all their captive peoples might also recover the joys of hospitality.Related Results Food in Russian History and Culture Trust, E-innovation and Leadership in Change Foreign Banks in United States Since World War II: A Useful Fringe Building Your Brand With Brand Line Extensions The Impact of the Structure of Debt on Target Gains We all know that in czarist times the merchant class and the aristocracy were the only ones who got much of the caviar and vodka. But whereas Communism's idea of equality was forcing everyone (except the nomenklatura) to eat like serfs, part of the new leaders' task will be to bring about a Russia in which ordinary people have a chance to eat like princes.Nineteenth-century Russian literature is full of the sorts of food most living Russians have only dreamed of groaning zakuska tables; blini with butter, sour cream, and caviar; meat and fish dishes ingeniously contrived to satisfy the Russian taste for trompel'oeil; artful, Frenchified desserts.Russian food was never strong on vegetables, except mushrooms-and mushrooms are not merely a food but a passion. Vladimir Nabokov describes his mother's picking mushroom at their country estate:One of her greatest pleasures in summer was the very Russian sport of hodit' po gribi (looking for mushrooms). . . . all she picked were species belonging to the edible section of the genus Boletus (tawny edulis, brown scaber, red aurantiacus, and a few close allies).... Rainy weather would bring out these beautiful plants in profusion under the firs, birches, and aspens in our park, especially in its older part ... Its shady recesses would then harbor that special boletic reek which makes a Russian's nostrils dilate-a dark, dank, satisfying blend of damp moss, rich earth, rotting leaves.This is a love that Russians carry with them wherever they go. Anya von Bremzen, in the good new cookbook Please to the Table, writes of two Russian diplomats in England:These fellows went into the countryside on a mushroom-picking expedition (a must for every homesick Russian) and were promptly arrested for trespassing. When the country policeman actually realized what they were doing, however, he became so concerned for their health . . . that he dropped all charges and insisted that they call an emergency number in case of poisoning. The diplomats had a good laugh with their friends later that evening over an exquisite mushroom dinner back in London.The mushrooms thus gathered can be used in any number of ways; the one Nabokov mentions (＂fried in butter and thickened with sour cream＂), known as mushrooms smitane, is one of the simplest and best.But equally typical in their own way are the zakuski-appetizers of all sorts. (Traditionally guests stand around the buffet table. However, Miss von Bremzen reports that recent emigres almost always sit: they have spent too much time standing in lines ever to stand when it isn't necessary.) The Russian Tea Room in New York used to serve, for after-theater supper, a glorious zakuska platter. It always included two or three kinds of fish (pickled herring, matjes herring, smoked salmon); one or two smoked meats (tongue, ham); a square of jellied calf's foot; eggplant oriental (the one offering I didn't like); and always a nice scoop of chopped chicken liver and another of red caviar. None of these items-with the possible exception of the eggplant and the calfs foot (and that's not so very different in flavor and texture from headcheese)-is a stranger to the American table. The genius lies in the profusion.An American who studied at Moscow University during the Khrushchev Thaw recalls the order of meals there: soup for breakfast, soup for lunch, soup for dinner. At breakfast and dinner, the only cutlery was a spoon, but at lunch the students got a fork as well. That is because at lunch there was a hunk of meat in the soup. Fortunately that experience did not put him off real Russian soups, of which the queen is borshch. Borshch (which is of Ukrainian, and not Russian, origin) can be made with pork, beef, goose, duck-there are as many variations as there are cooks. The one essential is beets (the name comes from an Old ...
Fast Food 快餐食品 Fast-food chains,American- style, are currently on the increase all over the world.Most of these places work on a similar principle. There is a long counter , above which is displayed a list(often with pictures) of the items available, and behind which several people(often students working for the minimum wage)are serving. Individual queues form in front of each assistant .You receive what you order more or less immediately and take it on a tray to a table, picking up thing like straws（吸管）， pepper, salt, ketchup（蕃茄酱），pickles（泡菜）and napkins(usually paper napkins) on the way.If you can't see any knives and forks , this means you are supposed to eat with your hands.If you can't see any straws, that's because they are hiding in the straw dispenser（分配器） that you have to fiddle（拨弄） with the bottom of it to get a straw(one at a time)to emerge.When you've finished, you yourself throw away everything except the tray.Many fast-food places have drive- in facilities.You place your order from your car via （通过） a microphone and then drive round to a special window to pay and pick it up .You may even encounter places where a waitress bring your meal out, and you sit and eat it in the car from a tray hooked over the door through the open window.You may be asked if your order is “for here” or “to go ” (i.e.to take away).In some states there is no sales tax on food consumed.Types of Fast Food Restaurants 快餐店的种类 The most widespread type of fast- food restaurant is that serving hamburgers, such as the chains of MacDonald.All the different chains have their own specialties .Arby's restaurants serve large roast beef, ham and cheese, and turkey（火鸡） “sandwiches”. Some restaurant chains specialize in serving steaks quickly and cheaply. And then there's Kentucky Fried Chicken.Chips 油炸土豆片 Chips in America are called “French fries” or “fries ”for short.(Note that in the USA “ chips” mean crisps).“French fries” are normally thinner than chips.Americans generally put ketchup on their chips ,and you will not normally find vinegar（醋）.Pizzas（意大利式）烘焰饼 There are many specialty pizza restaurants in America, and many of them take telephone orders and deliver pizzas to your home, which can often be convenient.They come in different sizes, and a large one can be big enough for a party of four people.If you want to share a pizza but can't agree on the ingredients , it is possible to order two different sets of toppings ,one set on each half.Ice-Cream 冰淇淋 Shops selling large number of different flavors of ice- cream are very common in America. If you are not sure what flavor you want ,generally you can sample a small spoonful of a particular flavor to see if you like it. You can either have your ice- cream in a “plain cone”（普通型锥形物） or in a “sugar cone”（甜脆型锥形物）.Soft Drinks 软饮料 Fast- food restaurants do not serve alcohol.The soft drinks most often sold are Coca- Cola and Pepsi—— Cola, plus fizzy drinks (which are like lemonade)and root beer (which is like cough medicine).Fizzy drinks are known as “carbonated beverages” （碳酸饮料） or ,more colloquially,“soda”,“pop”,“soda pop”,and “soft drinks”.All these drinks come with lost of ice. In fact, you will probably find as much ice as drink in your drink.If you ask for a soft drink without ice, they will think you are funny but will probably oblige.(They may charge you a bit extra, for ice is cheaper than Coke.)